Early Morning Accident Damages Pillar

Early Monday morning a single-car accident resulted in damage to the north pillar framing the Broadway entrance to Mount Holly.

The top of the pillar cracked and shifted in the impact and a large stone was knocked from the rear (west-facing) side. The limestone capstone also shifted significantly. A long crack appeared in the recently-repaired north wall next to the pillar.

Fortunately, the driver and his canine passengers seem to have escaped serious injury.

Mount Holly’s sexton, Steve Adams, and city officials have examined the damaged pillar and concluded that falling stone and the possible further collapse of the pillar may present a danger to the public.

To ensure pedestrian and vehicular safety, the Broadway entrance will be closed temporarily and a fence erected around the damage so that no one can get too close to it. Visitors are asked to enter the cemetery from 13th Street.

At this time, we believe that the vehicle that hit the pillar is covered by insurance. The cemetery hopes to work with the insurance company to effect and pay for repairs very quickly.

The cemetery will provide more information as to the cost of repairs and a timeline for them as more information becomes available.

Let Freedom Ring

Matilda Buchanan, a member of the Mount Holly Cemetery Association, welcomed guests to our commemoration of Arkansas’s ratification of the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The event was sponsored by the Arkansas Civil War Sesquicentennial Commission. The commemoration was held at the bell house in the center of the cemetery.

This was her speech:

“April 14, 1865, was a monumental day. That day Arkansas became the 21st state to ratify the amendment to end slavery. That night, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated.

“On that April day in 1865, Mount Holly Cemetery was just over twenty years old. There were 640 Confederate soldiers buried here. Many were later moved after the war to Oakland Cemetery which had been opened in 1863 mainly to handle the thousands who died in the city’s hospitals during the war. Today  13 Union Soldiers and 217 Confederate Soldiers are buried at Mount Holly.

“The bell house was not here then. It was constructed in 1889, but there may have been a bell in the cemetery in 1865 to summon the sexton. Nevertheless, we stand in a place that connects us to that Little Rock of 150 years ago. Today we gather to reflect on history and to celebrate the ending of a horrible institution which still haunts every American.

“The Sesquicentennial Commission wants us to ring the bell 13 times beginning at 1:00, but I think everyone should ring the bell loudly and as long as we need to.”

The History of Tales of the Crypt

Susan Taylor Barham taught English at Parkview Arts and Science Magnet and was the original teacher contacted by the Arkansas Historic Preservation Program (AHPP) to start the “Tales of the Crypt” program at Mount Holly.

Knowing that Ms. Barham brought her students to Mount Holly Cemetery to read the poems from Edgar Lee Masters’ Spoon River Anthology, the sexton told the AHPP officials that they might want to contact her about the idea.

Barham enlisted the support of Judy Goss, a creative writing teacher and theatre specialist at Parkview, and Fred Bussey to assist in the project. Thinking we would be doing this as a one-time activity at first we plotted out twelve sites and solicited student performer-writers to assist. Leigh contacted the Arkansas Arts Center.

The costumer at the Arkansas Arts Center loaned us costumes which were placed across a bench. The performers were told to find something that would fit.

The three hundred people that were expected turned into over twelve hundred and the evening lasted until about eleven o’clock rather than the eight-thirty expected finish time. The City of Little Rock accepted the project and it has now continued eighteen years and this past year was to be the first that Susan was not physically present. Even in 2012, when she was fighting cancer, she made an appearance at the program she helped give birth to and loved dearly.

Tales of the Crypt continues to be Mount Holly’s most popular event. It is a wonderful legacy to Susan Taylor Barham’s creativity and commitment to education.

Dedicated to Mount Holly’s Master Gardeners

Mount Holly Cemetery extends a special thank you to Grounds Chair Nancy Phillips and to our Pulaski County Master Gardeners who lovingly care for Mount Holly throughout the spring, summer, and fall.

This year twenty Master Gardeners supported forty flowerbeds. We appreciate you very much!

 

Iconography and Symbolism in Mount Holly

by Marianne Ligon

Whether we are aware or not, we use symbols every day. When we see a red octagon sign at the end of the street, we know to stop. The golden arches are recognized worldwide as a place for hamburgers and fries. And the stick man or stick woman guides us to the appropriate restroom everywhere. Most people know the cross as a symbol of Christianity and the Star of David as one for Judaism, but few know the fern frond is a symbol for sincerity or sorrow and the scallop shell symbolizes a journey or pilgrimage.

Cemeteries house a wealth of symbols and iconography. Not only are there numerous styles of crosses: the Western, Latin, Celtic, Maltese, but some even are mingled with flowers and vines. Ivy may represent memory, friendship, fidelity as well as immortality or eternal life as it is always green. The morning glory represents resurrection, mourning, youth or brevity of life. The palm is a symbol of spiritual victory, the rose of love, beauty, hope and the lily for innocence and purity. Religious art and nature are only a few of the types of ornamentation found in cemeteries.

Architectural features and items from a daily life are visible on some markers. A broken column means a life cut short. Often a column will have a drape or pall over it representing sorrow or mourning. An obelisk is one of the oldest forms of symbols dating to the Egyptian for whom it represented the ray of the sun. For them the sun symbolized immortality. A scroll symbolizes a life as does an open book. An urn is a Greek symbol of mourning and may even have a pall on it or a flame (eternity) or additional meaning. There is even evidence of vocations and secret societies on markers. A caduceus may appear on the marker of a doctor, musical notes for a musician, and scales for a lawyer. Woodmen of the world often have a marker in the shape of a tree trunk. Odd Fellows would have a chain and Masons an all seeing eye or the square and compass.

There is so much more to read than the names and dates on the markers of Mount Holly. Call for a tour or spend a few extra minutes studying the symbols and learn to read the stones. There is a story to be had.

New Marker for 130-Year-Old Grave

For 130 years, the grave of LIttle Rock Chief of Police George A. Counts, who died in 1884 at the age of 35, has not been marked. Thanks to his great-grandson Jim Counts, current Little Rock Chief of Police Stuart Thomas, and the Little Rock Police Department, that has been remedied. The Little Rock Police Department will dedicate the marker on Friday, March 28th at 2:00 P. M. The public is invited.

There is an interesting story behind the story. Counts was nominated for the position of Chief of Police by Isaac Taylor Gillam, a former slave. Gillam had been a jailer and a LIttle Rock policeman as well.

Chief Counts contracted tuberculosis in 1883 and had to resign his position. He died in 1884. According to our records he would have been a very young man of 29 years old when he was elected Chief of Police.

Chief Counts was the grandfather of Hollywood actress Eleanor Counts, whose grave at Mount Holly was marked last year by the Downtown Dames.

UALR Public Radio (KUAR) covered the story, as did the Washington Times.

Questers Help Mount Holly

Six grants awarded through the Arkopolis Questers have been used to restore five major items at Mount Holly Cemetery including the Boyle Fountain, two monuments (the Samuel Adams Obelisk and the Sullivan monument), and a cast iron bench. Two separate grants will restore a cast iron fence around the Samuel Calhoun Roane burial site.

The Questers have obtained grants for Mount Holly totaling $11,856.

Thank you, Questers!

Nathan Warren Gets a Headstone

Founding pastor of Little Rock’s Bethel AME Church finally has a new grave marker to replace the monument that was destroyed a century ago.

On the morning of November 9, 2013, members of Bethel AME Church, the Masons, the Order of the Eastern Star, and the Mount Holly Cemetery Association gathered to celebrate the 150th birthday of Bethel AME Church and to dedicate a headstone marking the grave of its founding pastor Reverend Nathan Warren.

Mount Holly’s surviving records show that the Reverend Nathan Warren was buried in the Chester Ashley family lot and that an obelisk marked his grave. On November 9, 2013, a new monument, donated by Dr. Sybil Jordan-Hampton of Little Rock, was unveiled in the Ashley plot over the spot believed to hold Rev. Warren’s grave. Dr. Jordan-Hampton is a member of Bethel AME Church and a member of the Mount Holly Cemetery Association, which maintains the cemetery.

She said, “My brother Les and his wife Esther, along with Alfred and I decided to donate the headstone to honor my mother, Lorraine Jordan, who joined Bethel in 1932, at age 9.  It is neat to be able to honor Reverend Warren, Bethel AME on its 150th anniversary, and our mother with this gift.” She also said, “We want the community to know that the cemetery is not a closed place and we want to build broader support for Mount Holly.”

The Masons performed the traditional ceremony ensuring the marker’s installation according to Masonic tradition using the square, compass, level, plumb rule and trowel. The monument is crowned with the Masonic symbol and reads:

NATHAN WARREN
UNCLE “NASE”
BORN INTO SLAVERY 1812
CAME TO AR WITH ROBERT CRITTENDEN IN 1819
OBTAINED FREEDOM IN FEBRUARY 1835, THEN WORKED
TO SECURE THE FREEDOM OF FAMILY MEMBERS
DIED JUNE 3, 1888 LITTLE ROCK, AR
LITTLE ROCK CONFECTIONER
FOUNDER BETHEL AME CHURCH LITTLE ROCK 1863
MEMBER PRINCE HALL MASONIC LODGE ARKANSAS
DEDICATED IN HONOR OF BETHEL AME CHURCH
SESQUICENTENNIAL 2013

We have previously posted a biographical article about Nathan Warren.

Little Rock Culture Vulture: Thomas D. Merrick

We appreciate the research of the Little Rock Culture Vulture, who educates us about the residents of Mount Holly Cemetery.

Today’s article is about Little Rock businessman and mayor Thomas Dwight Merrick, a colonel during the Civil War who fought for the Confederate States of America.

Read the entire article here.

Nathan Warren: Free Man, Confectioner, Minister, Civil Rights Advocate

by Anne Orsi

The lot of a slave in the American South was not easy, no matter how well he or she was treated by well-intentioned owners. It is hard for many of us to imagine being born into bondage, not free to make our own decisions about where to live, whether to be educated, whom to marry, and whether we can even live with our own families. In the early 1800’s, though, for most black people living in the newly-formed United States of America, such a situation was their reality, and a well-intentioned slave owner was not the norm – certainly not when it came to the liberty of his slaves.

Some slaves overcame their stifling beginnings, though, and became laudable examples of the kind of men and women their entire race should always have been allowed to be. Nathan Warren was one of these great men. Born into slavery, Nathan “Nase” Warren was a successful businessman, a minister, a devoted husband and father, a community organizer, and a civil rights activist. He is buried in a lost grave at Mount Holly Cemetery in Little Rock, Arkansas.

When Robert Crittenden came to Arkansas as the first Secretary of the newly-created Arkansas Territory in 1819, he brought with him a six year old slave called Nase. Some of Crittenden’s white descendants and some of Nathan’s black ones believe Crittenden, who was about 15 or 16 years older than his young slave, was the child’s father.

In 1834, when Nathan was about 21 or 22 years old, Robert Crittenden died nearly bankrupt. Crittenden was only 37 years old when he died, and his widow had difficulty even keeping a roof over her head. This meant turmoil for young Nase, whose ownership was transferred to Daniel Greathouse, the pioneer in Faulkner County, Arkansas, who at the time was living in Little Rock. But Greathouse filed an interesting document with the Pulaski County Clerk – after three and a half years of service, Nase was to be freed. Greathouse died before those three and a half years had expired, and Nase was indeed given his freedom just before Arkansas became the 25th state to be admitted to the Union.

Possibly because of his visibility in the Crittenden household, Nathan had made important contacts among other members of Arkansas’ territorial elite. Chester Ashley, one of the men who donated the land where the Mount Holly Cemetery sits to the City of Little Rock, was one of those contacts. Ashley hired Nathan as a carriage driver. Nathan and Anne, the quadroon daughter of the Ashleys’ cook, married. They would have either nine or ten children together, and Nase would help to rear Anne’s older son, W.A. Rector.

Nase was much more than an ordinary carriage driver. When he took over a confectionery two blocks from the Ashley home, on the land where part of the Capital Hotel now stands, the people of Little Rock quickly learned that he had a true gift for his craft. His shop was so successful that the ladies of Little Rock would not consider having a party without treats from his store. They begged “Uncle Nase” for his secrets, but he refused, telling them that if he shared his recipes with white ladies, he would give away his trade.

His confectionery eventually moved to a larger storefront west of Main Street. He suffered a setback when his shop burned. Arson was suspected. He reopened, though, and business continued briskly.

Nathan was not the only member of his family to live free in the early 1800’s. One of his brothers who had remained with the Crittenden family in D.C. had also been freed, and together they purchased the freedom of a third brother from the Crittenden family in 1844.

When Nathan’s first wife died, he married another Ashley slave, Mary Elizabeth. He had two daughters with her, and eventually purchased their freedom. The children from his first marriage remained slaves in the Ashley family, though.

In the 1850’s, sentiments against free black people ran high in southern states, and Arkansas was no exception. In 1859, Governor Elias N. Conway signed the Free Negro Expulsion Act. Free black people, which meant anyone who had at least one black grandparent, were required to leave the state by January 1, 1860, or face sale into slavery for a period of one year. The continued freedom of about 700 people was directly jeopardized by this Act. Nathan was not among them, though. He was a very intelligent man, and when a similar measure had narrowly failed in the legislature in 1857, Nathan had seen the writing on the wall. He packed up Mary Eliza and their two free daughters and left for Xenia, Ohio, where he lived for several years. While he was in Ohio, he took the name Warren as a surname. At the time of the 1860 census, he lived in Xenia, Greene County, Ohio, with Mary Eliza, their daughters Ellen (8) and Ida (4), and two sons, William (2) and Edwin (7 months). As he had in Little Rock, Nathan worked as a baker.

A story in a newspaper article about Nathan claimed that an old friend encountered him in New York during his exile and that Nathan was miserably unhappy and down on his luck. The friend, a Mr. Tucker, brought Nathan back to Arkansas even though the Act expelling free black people was still in effect. Family legends and the census locating Nathan’s family in Ohio for this time period dispute this version of events. Nathan’s descendants believe that Nathan and his free family returned to Little Rock about 1863, possibly with the help or sponsorship of the Ashley family. Since Nathan had left nine or ten of his still-enslaved children in Little Rock, one can only assume that he missed them and worried about them as the Civil War raged in and around Little Rock. Perhaps local people had their hands full with politics and the war, or perhaps “Uncle Nase” was so well-liked that the society ladies were grateful for his return and persuaded their husbands to leave him alone. At any rate, upon his return to Little Rock, Nathan Warren re-established his confectionery and his popularity.

While living in Ohio, Nathan and the Warren family had been introduced to the African Methodist Episcopal Church. The AME church had broken away from the Methodist Church in Pennsylvania because black congregants wanted their own place of worship, independent from the white church. Almost as soon as he returned from Ohio, Nathan started the Bethel AME Church in Little Rock and was ordained as a minister. The Bethel AME Church is still a vital part of the downtown community, although it has moved into a different building that takes up the block bordered by 16th Street and Wright Avenue between Izard and State Streets. It is celebrating its sesquicentennial this year.

The year Nathan Warren started Bethel AME Church was a turning point not just in his life, but in the lives of all American slaves in rebellious states. The Emancipation Proclamation had been issued January 1 of that year, and Civil War raged across the country. Most of the battles fought in Arkansas occurred after January 1863, including the battles of Bayou Meto (also known as Reed’s Bridge) and Bayou Fourche, both of which were fought on the Union army’s approach to Little Rock.

With Lee’s surrender at Appomattox, the rest of Nathan Warren’s family soon became free. Most of the children from his first marriage were adults now, and many of those ten children had inherited Nathan’s musical talent. Nathan was a popular fiddler, and his children played other instruments and performed publicly as a group.

The end of the war brought other changes, too. The government’s efforts at reconstruction in the southern states meant that black people would be granted rights. Exactly how those rights would be realized, and exactly how the former slaves would support themselves, was uncertain. Nathan Warren was a Pulaski County delegate to the Convention of Colored Citizens held in Little Rock November 30 – December 2, 1865.  It was the first convention ever held by the black residents of Arkansas.

The language contained in the minutes of that convention is stirring. The convention

met for the purpose of conferring with each other, as to our best interest and future prosperity; also, to memorialize the State Legislature and Congress of the United States, to grant us equality before the law, and the right of suffrage, … we have earned it and, therefore, we deserve it; we have bought it with our blood, and, therefore, it is of priceless value to us.

Rev. Nathan Warren delivered the prayer at the closing session the final day of the convention. The final resolutions of the convention underscored the great hope that the newly emancipated black Arkansans had, while recognizing that a struggle still lay before them.

The persecutions of two and a half centuries have not been enabled to destroy our confidence in the eventual justice of the American people. We believe the time has come when wisdom again asserts her sway in the councils of the nation.

It would be another hundred years before the federal government would pass a civil rights act to ensure racial equality.

Through the Reconstruction era, Nathan Warren maintained his confectionery and his musically-gifted children continued performing. Their musical gifts would bring them tragedy, though. In early 1866, the Warren family performers were hired to perform for a private party aboard the steamboat Miami on a journey between Little Rock and Memphis. In the early morning hours of January 28, 1866, the Miami was on its return to Little Rock. As the Miami navigated waters near the then-thriving town of Napoleon in Desha County, where the Arkansas empties into the Mississippi, its boilers exploded. Three of Nathan’s sons, George, Frank and John, were among the 225 passengers killed, as was his son-in-law, Wash Phillips. Nathan’s son Isaiah and stepson W.A. Rector were on the boat, but survived the explosion.

The Miami was one of three such tragedies in just a few days on America’s central waterways. Two days after the Miami’s explosion, the Missouri exploded, and two days after that, the W.R. Carter blew up. Around 365 lives were lost in the three explosions. The causes of the explosions on the Missouri and the W.R. Carter were never explained, but according to a report in the Cincinnati Enquirer on February 6, 1866, inspectors investigating the incident blamed the Miami tragedy on its engineers, who apparently were aware that the boilers needed repairs, but failed to maintain them properly during the trip. The Atlantic and Mississippi Company, which owned all three of these steamboats as well as three others that had exploded in the preceding year, had no insurance coverage for its vessels. The Cincinnati Enquirer reported that the company’s managers had reasoned that it was cheaper to replace a boat now and then than it was to pay expensive insurance premiums on its entire fleet. A month to the day after the Miami tragedy, three more of the Atlantic & Mississippi’s steamboats were destroyed by fire near St. Louis. After losing nine steam boats – six within thirty days of each other – the company finally elected to insure its fleet. The Miami was lost during the most destructive four months in the history of America’s river navigation. It was one of twenty-nine steamboats destroyed by fire in the sixteen weeks between December 15, 1865 and April 12, 1866.

Despite this incredible personal tragedy, Nathan Warren continued to push for his own prosperity and for the prosperity of his race. Bethel AME Church grew exponentially, and Rev. Warren himself shepherded the flock there. On August 22, 1873, an article in the Arkansas Gazette described efforts to form an organization designed to test the limits of the newly-enacted Arkansas Civil Rights Law of 1873. Some believed the act was a sham and that the white people of Arkansas had no intention of granting rights to black people. Nevertheless, a coalition of black and white citizens met to devise ways in which the law’s purpose could be tested and fulfilled. Rev. Warren attended, and was elected to the group’s finance committee.

Rev. Warren’s name appears in minutes of other meetings during Reconstruction. He was a civic leader, a minister, a successful businessman, and a civil rights activist. Despite periods of great suffering, tragic setbacks, and loss, Nathan Warren persevered. His descendants have every reason to be very proud of their notable ancestor.

He died in 1888 at about the age of 76. He was a member of the Mosaic Templars, and was accorded Masonic rites at his funeral. He was buried at Mount Holly Cemetery.

Nathan Warren’s tragedies did not end with his death, however. The civil rights he wanted so much for himself and his family were to be tested in the fires of Jim Crow, and at some point during those terrible years of racial inequity, tombstones of the graves of a number of black residents at Mount Holly were vandalized and removed. The minutes of the Mount Holly Cemetery Association are incomplete for dozens of years in the first half of the 20th century, and no one now alive has any memory of exactly what happened to the obelisk that had been erected on Nathan Warren’s grave. Even the location of his grave has been lost to history.

Next to his daughter Maria Rebecca Craigen, whose first husband Wash Phillips was killed in the explosion of the Miami, is an empty space suitable for the erection of a replacement monument for Nathan Warren. Mount Holly hopes that eventually that space can be filled with a fitting stone for a man who worked so hard against all odds for himself, his family, and his community.

 

 

Information for this article was gleaned from two articles by Margaret Smith Ross published in the Arkansas Gazette and in the Historic Arkansas Quarterly, from records compiled by Tom Dillard and stored at the Arkansas Studies Institute’s Butler Center, from Bethel AME Church, and from online resources through the magic of Google. The author wishes to give special thanks to Nathan Warren’s 4th great-granddaughter, Shareese Kondo, for her gracious gift of time and for her family legends about her illustrious ancestor.